Leuven University Press
The compelling story of Hungarian children living with Belgian families during the interwar periodChildren who migrated without their families were noteworthy participants of interwar European migration history. Milk Sauce and Paprika tells the story of Hungarian children who were sent to Belgium in the framework of a humanitarian project between 1923 and 1927.Based on a wide variety of sources such as official documents, contemporary newspapers, photographs, family correspondences, biographies and interviews, this book examines the history of the Belgian-Hungarian child relief project and describes its social and cultural impacts on the families involved in both countries.This compelling story of one of the first mass European child migration movements offers new insights in the dynamics of national and religious communities. Furthermore, it sheds light on intimate family life and contemporary habits and values regarding parenting and co-parenting in the interwar period. Cutting across national and cultural borders, this monograph connects individual and collective memory with the experiences of childhood and migration.
Acknowledgements IntroductionMigration and Childhood States, Organisations, Families and Children: Levels of Analysis Concepts: ‘Holiday’ – ‘Migration’ – ‘Foster’ About Childhood: Archives, Ego-documents and Oral History Part IStates, Institutions, and the Welfare of Children Chapter 1. Nations and Actors International Relief Projects for Children and Pacifistic Objectives Economy, Politics and Social Circumstances – Belgium and Hungary Introducing the Actors: the State, the Organisers and the Catholic ChurchChapter 2. Practising Propaganda and Negotiating Collective Identities: “Catholic people of the Kempen! Think about the Hungarian children” In the Newspapers During Festivities From the Travel Reports ‘Are the Children Suffering from Hunger in Hungary?’: Mission Statement in the Form of a Polemic Concluding Remarks to Part I Part IIThe Family Network – The Best Interests of the ChildChapter 1. The Hungarian Nation and the Best Interests of its Families and its Children “Walking Red Tulips”: They are the Future of the Hungarian Nation Fairy Tales, Mythical Figures and the Relief Project Fairy Tale Gone Bad? Practising Social Control Chapter 2. About the Families Staying with Families What Kinds of Families? Assistance to the Families The Question of ‘Adoption’ Chapter 3. Representation and Bonding of Families Photographing the Family – Photographing the Hungarian Child Exchanging Letters – Creating Families Concluding Remarks to Part II Part IIIChildren – Migrants – Identities: Between ‘Motherland’ and ‘Home’Chapter 1. The Returned Ones Exchanging Letters – Retaining Attachment ‘Anna uit Hongarije’ Chapter 2. Staying in Belgium – Family and Friends Letters from Home and Migrant Children Girlfriends in Sisterhood Hungarians around Us – the Beginning of an Organisation Collective Remembrance – Bonheiden 2007 Remembering Individually Concluding Remarks to Part III Conclusion Structure and Agency in Migration and ChildhoodMemory that DefinesLife after the Relief Project Appendices Appendix 1. Confessional distribution of the Hungarian population around 1930 Appendix 2. Statistics of the Hungarian children who participated in the international relief project in the different countries Appendix 3. Quantitative data on the relief project based on the lists of names of the Hungarian children (1923-1927) Appendix 4. Estimation of number of children that remained in Belgium after the relief project Notes Illustration credits Sources Bibliography Index